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FDM 3D printing technology with plastics
# SIU_3D_in_ details 2020-06-30 00:00:00
FDM-technology of three-dimensional printing has become popular due to the simplicity of execution, availability of raw materials and low cost of finished objects. Consumable components are diverse in chemical composition and performance.
Development advantages FDM technology in plastic printing stands out thanks to a list of competitive advantages:
- ability to create original elements of compact and large dimensions;
- plastic fusion is carried out quickly, which makes it possible to execute urgent and extraordinary orders;
- a rich assortment of thermoplastics allows you to find a material that is optimally suitable for properties;
- on the FDM printer it is possible to create frames of simple or complex geometric configurations, hollow products or solid-filled samples;
- spare parts for devices are easily available.
The methodology is used for prototyping and operational production, provides an opportunity for a short time to get a completely finished object with different physical and technical characteristics, resistant to mechanical, chemical and temperature effects.
The printing procedure and final products are environmentally friendly and safe for health.
Three-dimensional printing by the method of layer-by-layer deposition is used for the manufacture of functional components of automobiles, electronic equipment and computer equipment, models of architectural structures. Using an FDM printer, you can print medical devices and household items: furniture accessories, dishes, souvenirs, toys.
On industrial equipment with an enlarged working platform, large plastic blanks and large-scale design layouts are created.
FDM-prototypes are actively used to test the collection and functioning of the developed devices. Printed products are convenient for conceptual modeling both within the company and as part of marketing research and presentations.
FDM printers are often used for small-scale production; they are purchased by educational institutions to demonstrate the potential of additive techniques to students.
Features of the procedure
The basis of FDM technology in 3D printing is the principle of the gradual erection of a voluminous object with layers of a consumable resource that are sequentially bonded to each other. The manufacturing process goes through the following steps:
- Creating a digital three-dimensional model.
- Download the STL file to the printing equipment for conversion to G-code.
- Formation of a program containing extruder movement algorithms and basic operating parameters (shape and dimensions of an object, temperature of a printing module, layer thickness, head moving speed).
- Providing consumables.
- Cultivation of the design in digital settings.
- Cooling the workpiece.
- Post-processing of the surface (getting rid of roughness and burr).
Some printer models are equipped with several printheads, which makes it possible to create multi-colored designs and frames of intricate shapes. If an object of complex configuration is manufactured, then in order to avoid deformation, the product is printed from the main raw materials and support material, the latter is removed after cooling the blank.
The accuracy of the construction depends on the thickness of the printed layer. Initially, the surface of the finished product is slightly ribbed, but it is easy to give the model additional smoothness by grinding.
The filament for the FDM printer is a thermoplastic in the form of a thread or rod wound on a spool. The component enters the printing module of the equipment, where it is melted and fed through a metal nozzle to the working surface. The construction of the object is carried out from the bottom up.
Plastic thread is of two standard diameters: 1.75 and 3 mm. For each type, the temperature for heating the desktop is determined for better formation of the first layer.
The basic consumables for FDM printers are ABS, nylon and PLA.
ABS - impact resistant technical thermoplastic resin - durable, moisture resistant and non-toxic, characterized by a wide range of operating temperatures.
Nylon thread easily absorbs moisture, recommended for growing solid models that do not require bonding parts.
For the manufacture of items in contact with food, use PLA-plastic based on plant materials. The biocompatible polyester is durable and has low heat shrink.
In our line of equipment for FDM printers, Zortrax models are suitable:
FDM technology is today considered the most common and rational option for creating volume objects. The technique is in demand in the production of spare parts, breadboard models and samples, medical products and designer products. Demand for FDM equipment is growing steadily, as users are attracted by a wide selection of filaments, device availability and ease of use. Technology developers are constantly improving equipment, expanding the range of materials used to achieve a flawless result.
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